Young Investigator Funding

Many funding agencies have special programs geared towards supporting faculty who are early in their careers. 

agency/program
Deadlines
program synopsis

Department of Agriculture Agriculture and Food Initiative (AFRI), National Institute of Food and Agriculture

Varies

Food and Agricultural Science Enhancement Grants component includes funding for new investigators, here defined as "an individual is beginning his/her career, does not have extensive scientific publication record, and has less than 5 years of postgraduate, career-track training." These grants are designed to help new scientists in careers in high-priority areas of national need in agriculture, food, and environmental sciences.

 

Department of Defense - Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Program Early January The YIP program seeks to identify and support academic scientists and engineers in their first or second full-time tenure-track or tenure-track equivalent academic appointment and show exceptional promised for doing creative research. Objectives include attracting outstanding faculty to the Department of the Navy's research program, to support these faculty members' research, and to encourage their teaching and research careers.
Department of Defense - Air Force Office of Scientific Research Young Investigator Program Summer Scientists and engineers who have received PhDs or equivalent degrees in the last five years are eligible to apply for the Air Force YIP. The objective of the program is to foster creative basic research in science and engineering, enhance early career development of young investigators, and increase opportunities for young investigators to understand the Air Force mission. 
Department of Defense - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Young Faculty Award 11/19/2019 (exec. summary due 9/18/2019) The object of the DARPA Young Faculty Award (YFA) program is to identify and engage rising stars in junior research positions, emphasizing those without prior DARPA funding, and expose them to DoD needs and DARPA's program development process. Each award will include a 24-month base period (a maximum of $500,000) and a 12-month option period (a maximum of $500,000).
Department of Energy - Early Career Research Program 4/29/2019 The DOE Early Career Research Program supports the development of individuals research programs of outstanding scientists early in their careers and stimulates research careers in the disciplines supported by the DOE Office of Science. To be eligible for the award, a researcher must be an untenured, tenure-track assistant or associate professor at a US academic institution who received a PhD within the past 10 years. Research topics are required to fall within one of the DOE's Office of Science six major program offices: Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), Biological and Environmental Research (BER), Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), High Energy Physics (HEP), and Nuclear Physics (NP). Under the program, university researchers will receive at least $150,000 per year to cover summer salary and research expenses. 
NASA Early Career Faculty   The ECF component to the Space Technology Research Grants Program awards grants to accredited US universities on behalf of outstanding faculty early in their careers. ECF challenges early career faculty to examine the theoretical feasibility of ideas and approaches that are critical to making science, space travel, and exploration more effective, affordable, and sustainable. Awards are expected to be a maximum of three years in duration, and the typical award amount is $200K per year.
NIH K01 - Mentored Research Scientist Career Development Award - Clinical Trial Required or Clinical Trial Not Allowed or Promote Diversity 10/12/2019 (additional dates) Intended to support a postdoctoral or early career research scientist committed to research in need of both advanced research training and additional experience. The purpose of the NIH Mentored Research Scientist Development Award (K01) is to provide support and "protected time" (three to five years) for an intensive, supervised career development experience in the biomedical, behavioral, or clinical sciences leading to research independence. Award budgets are composed of salary and other program-related expenses. The total project period may not exceed 5 years.
NIH K99/R00 - Pathway to Independence Award - Clinical Trial Required OR Clinical Trial Not Allowed 10/12/2019 (additional dates) This program supports both an initial mentored research experience (K99) followed by independent research (R00) for highly qualified, postdoctoral researchers, to secure an independent research position. The purpose of the program is to increase and maintain a strong cohort of new and talented, NIH supported, independent investigators. This program is designed to facilitate a timely transition of outstanding postdoctoral researchers with a research or clinical doctorate degree from a mentored, postdoctoral research positions to independent, tenure-track or equivalent faculty positions. Award budgets are composed of salary and other program-related expenses. The total project period may not exceed 5 years.
NIH K23 - Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Award - Clinical Trial Required OR Clinical Trial Not Allowed 10/12/2019 (additional dates) This program provides support for the career development of clinically trained professionals who have made a commitment to patient-oriented research, and who have the potential to develop into productive, clinical investigators. 
NIH K25 - Mentored Quantitative Research Career Development Award - Clinical Trial Required OR Clinical Trial Not Allowed 10/12/2019 (additional dates) This program supports the career development of investigators with quantitative scientific and engineering backgrounds outside of biology or medicine who have made a commitment to focus their research endeavors on basic or clinical biomedical research.
NSF Faculty Early Career Development Program (CAREER) Due dates vary by directorate; check relevant dates here The Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program is a Foundation-wide activity that offers the National Science Foundation's most prestigious awards in support of early-career faculty who have the potential to serve as academic role models in research and education and to lead advances in the mission of their department or organization. Activities pursued by early-career faculty should build a firm foundation for a lifetime of leadership in integrating education and research.